Category Archives: Acts

Boelies wees gewaarsku

01_BulliesRoelien van der Merwe was ernstig verontrus toe sy uitvind daar is ‘n webwerf wat verskriklike kommentaar oor haar kwytraak. Aanmerkings is oor haar gewig gemaak en dinge gesê wat impliseer dat sy vuil is.  Die webwerf het selfs andere genooi om aktief betrokke te raak en haar te beledig.

Die slagoffers van teistering (teistering sluit beledigende elektroniese kommunikasie, agtervolging en afknouery in) worstel al lank met gedrag wat neerkom op skending van hul regte maar wat nooit as `n kriminele oortreding beskou is nie en gevolglik nie wetlik strafbaar was nie.

Die langverwagte Wet op Beskerming teen Teistering 17 van 2011  het op 27 April 2013 in werking getree. Kragtens die Wet is teistering nie beperk tot  fisiese- en mondelinge mishandeling nie, maar sluit dit dreigemente of ongewenste aandag deur sosiale media en SMS-boodskappe in en kan persone wat hieraan blootgestel word ook om ‘n beskermingsbevel aansoek doen.

Wie geniet beskerming?

Die Wet maak dit moontlik vir enigiemand wat meen dat hy/sy geteister word om sonder regsverteenwoordiging die hof te nader vir `n beskermingsbevel.

`n Kind onder die ouderdom van 18 mag sonder die bystand van sy/haar ouers, of deur `n persoon wat namens die kind optree, aansoek doen om `n beskermingsbevel.

Verder, indien `n persoon nie in staat is om self  aansoek te doen om `n beskermingsbevel nie kan `n ander persoon wat `n wesenlike belang het om die teistering stop te sit, namens die geteisterde persoon aansoek doen om `n beskermingsbevel.

Watter beskerming word deur die Wet gebied?

Die Wet maak voorsiening vir ‘n spesiale prosedure waardeur `n aanvanklike hofbevel toegestaan word sonder onmiddellike kennis van die persoon wat die klaer teister. Die bevel word gebaseer slegs op die klaer se sy van die saak. Die hof sal onmiddellik die bevel toestaan indien hy tevrede is dat daar prima facie getuienis is dat die klaer geteister word, of moontlik geteister mag word, en dat skade gely word of gely mag word as die bevel nie toegestaan word nie.

Daar word dan `n datum bepaal waarop die persoon teen wie die bevel bekom is, redes kan aanvoer waarom die tussentydse bevel nie finaal gemaak moet word nie.

`n Beskermingsbevel kan aangepas word om voorsiening te maak vir die behoeftes van die klaer in sy/haar besondere situasie.  Dit beteken dat die hof die mag het om ‘n persoon te verbied om te teister of om ‘n handeling te pleeg wat in die beskermingsbevel gespesifiseer word.

`n Lasbrief vir arres kan tegelyk met die beskermingsbevel uitgereik word. Indien die persoon die bepalings van die beskermingsbevel oortree en voortgaan om die klaer te teister, kan die persoon dadelik gearresteer word.

Versuim om te voldoen aan die finale beskermingsbevel is `n kriminele oortreding en die oortreder kan ‘n boete of gevangenisstraf van nie langer nie as vyf jaar, opgelê word.

Hoe doen ek aansoek om `n beskermingsbevel?

Die klaer kan aansoek doen om ‘n beskermingsbevel deur `n aansoekvorm te voltooi by `n landdroshof waar hy/sy woon of werk, of by ‘n landdroshof waar die aanhitser van die teistering woon of werk.

Die klaer moet die redes uiteensit hoekom die beskermingsbevel benodig word en moet in besonderhede beskrywings verskaf van al die voorvalle van teistering wat hy/sy ervaar het.

Die klaer mag versoek dat die spesifieke handelinge van die teisteraar in die beskermingsbevel gelys word  en ook die hof  versoek om enige addisionele voorwaardes te stel wat nodig is om die klaer te beskerm en sy/haar veiligheid en welstand te verseker.

Om die klaer te beskerm sal  die fisiese huis- of werksadres van die klaer nie vermeld word in die beskermingsbevel wat aan die teisteraar voorsien word nie.

Boelies sal nou twee keer moet dink voordat hulle seksueel aanstootlike en ander beledigende materiaal stuur aangesien die lang arm van die gereg dit nie meer gaan duld nie.

Vir meer inligting skakel asseblief vir John Erasmus of Tana du Toit van ons kantore.

Hierdie is ‘n algemene inligtingstuk en moet gevolglik nie as regs- of ander professionele advies benut word nie. Geen aanspreeklikheid kan aanvaar word vir enige foute of weglatings of enige skade of verlies wat volg uit die gebruik van enige inligting hierin vervat nie. Kontak altyd u regsadviseur vir spesifieke en toegepaste advies.

POPI Act

04_popiThe Protection of Personal Information Bill, which will soon become law and is commonly referred to as POPI, seeks to regulate the processing of personal information. It must be read with other relevant statutes such as:

• ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS AND TRANSACTIONS Act 25 of 2002 (‘ECT’)

• PROMOTION OF ACCESS TO INFORMATION Act 2 of 2002 (‘PAIA’)

• REGULATION OF INTERCEPTION OF COMMUNICATIONS Act 70 of 2002 (‘RICA’)a

• CONSUMER PROTECTION Act 68 of 2008 (‘CPA’)

Personal information of both employees and clients is – given e-commerce and technology used in connecting businesses – becoming instantly accessible to third parties.

POPI aims to introduce certain protection principles to establish minimum requirements for the processing of personal information. There are eight information protection principles contained in chapter 3 of the Bill, namely:

Accountability; Processing limitation; Purpose specification; Further processing limitation; Information quality; Openness; Security safeguards; Data subject participation.

The intention is to promote transparency with regard to what information is collected and how it is to be processed. This might be the end of all those unsolicited sales calls and spam we receive on a daily basis.

Processing means broadly anything done with personal information, including collection, usage, storage, dissemination, modification or destruction (whether such processing is automated or not).

POPI compliance involves capturing the minimum required data, ensuring accuracy, and removing data that is no longer required. These measures are likely to improve the overall reliability of the organisation’s databases.

Compliance further demands identifying personal information and taking reasonable measures to protect the data, like tracking the workflow of client documents and ensuring that vital information is not misplaced or falls into the wrong hands.

The POPI Act is very much in line with similar legislation that exists in about 70 to 80 other countries, and South Africa is finally set to fall in line with international standards for the collection and handling of personal information.

The Act does not only protect the way in which information is used and/or re-used by the recipients of the information, but the party gathering the information also has the responsibility to ensure it is accurate, current and not misleading.

Personal Information may only be processed if voluntary, specific and informed consent is obtained.

An Information Protection Regulator will be appointed who will have broad powers and may consider the public interest as opposed to an individual’s rights to privacy.

There are, however, cases where POPI does not apply. Section 4 Exclusions include:

  1. purely household or personal activity
  2. sufficiently de-identified information
  3. some state functions including criminal prosecutions, national security etc.
  4. journalism under a code of ethics
  5. judiciary functions etc.

Reference:

  1. http://www.popi-compliance.co.za/
  2. http://www.saaci.co.za/

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied on as professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your financial adviser for specific and detailed advice.

Donations

art02A donation is defined in the Income Tax Act No. 58 of 1962 as “any gratuitous disposal of property including any gratuitous waiver or renunciation of a right.”  The donor may therefore not receive anything in return from the donee, as this will constitute an exchange agreement.

There are two types of donation, viz. donatio inter vivos (donation between two persons who are both alive) and donatio mortis causa (a donation where the donee will only receive the donation on the death of the donor).

The requirements for both an inter vivos and a mortis causa donation are:

  1. The donor must make an offer to donate, which offer must be accepted by the donee;
  2. The donor must have the necessary legal capacity to make the donation and the donee must have the necessary legal capacity to accept the donation;
  3. Anything that a person can trade (in commercio), can be donated;
  4. A donation must be legal and feasible; and
  5. A donation must be identified or identifiable.

Donations can also be withdrawn.  In the case of an inter vivos donation, the donor can at any time before the donee accepts the donation, withdraw such donation.  After acceptance of the donation by the donee, a valid contract has been formed and the donor will only be able to withdraw the donation in the case of gross ingratitude on the part of the donee, e.g. if the donee threatens the donor’s life.  A mortis causa donation can be repealed at any time before the donor’s death, as the donation will only be ratified on the death of the donor.

Finally, and probably of the most importance to some people, is the matter of donations tax payable to the Receiver of Revenue.  Currently donations tax is calculated at 20% of the fair market value of the property donated.

In terms of article 59 of the Income Tax Act, the donor is liable for payment of donations tax within three months after the donation was made.  If the donor fails to pay the tax timeously, the donor and the donee will be jointly and severally liable for the payment thereof.  An individual can make a donation of R100 000 per annum, free of donations tax.

There are also a few exemptions in terms of section 56 of the Income Tax Act, which should be noted. They include the following:

  1. A donation in terms of a duly registered prenuptial or postnuptial contract to the spouse of the donor;
  2. A donation between spouses who are still married to each other;
  3. A donation in the form of donatio mortis causa (this donation occurs in terms of the donor’s will and is therefore not subject to donations tax);
  4. A donation that was cancelled within six months after it was made; and
  5. Donations to certain public benefit organisations.

If spouses are married in community of property they should pay attention to section 57A of the Income Tax Act.  If any property, which forms part of the joint estate of both spouses is donated by one of the spouses, such donation shall be deemed to have been made in equal shares by each spouse.  However, if property that has been donated by one of the spouses belongs to only that spouse (the donor), the donation shall be deemed to have been made solely by the spouse who made the donation.

There are several factors to keep in mind when making a donation and it is therefore advisable to consult with an expert to discuss the tax and legal implications before a decision is made. Wilna Roux can help you with these difficult decisions. Contact her at wilna@conradieinc.co.za.

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied on as professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your financial adviser for specific and detailed advice.